Python Operators With Examples

Python operators allow us to do common processing on variables. We will look into different types of python operators with examples and also operator precedence.

Python Operators

Python Operators are the special symbols that can manipulate values of one or more operands.

Python Operator Types

Python operators can be classified into several categories.

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Comparison Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Assignment Operators

Python Arithmetic Operators

Operator Description Example
+ used to add two numbers sum = a + b
used for subtraction difference = a – b
* used to multiply two numbers. If a string and int is multiplied then the string is repeated the int times. mul = a*b

>>> “Hi”*5
‘HiHiHiHiHi’

/ used to divide two numbers div = b/a
% modulus operator, returns the remainder of division mod = a%b
** exponent operator

Output:

Python Bitwise Operators

 

Python Arithmetic Operators

Python Comparison Operators

Operator Description Example
== returns True if two operands are equal, otherwise False. flag = a == b
!= returns True if two operands are not equal, otherwise False. flag = a != b
> returns True if left operand is greater than the right operand, otherwise False. flag = a > b
< returns True if left operand is smaller than the right operand, otherwise False. flag = a < b
>= returns True if left operand is greater than or equal to the right operand, otherwise False. flag = a > b
<= returns True if left operand is smaller than or equal to the right operand, otherwise False. flag = a < b

 

Python Comparison Operators

Python Bitwise Operators

Operator Description Example
& Binary AND Operator x = 10 & 7 = 2
| Binary OR Operator x = 10 | 7 = 15
^ Binary XOR Operator x = 10 ^ 7 = 13
~ Binary ONEs Compliment Operator x = ~10 = -11
<< Binary Left Shift operator x = 10<<1 = 20
>> Binary Right Shift Operator x = 10>>1 = 5

 

Python Bitwise Operators

Python Logical Operators

Operator Description Example
and Logical AND Operator flag = exp1 and exp2
or Logical OR Operator flag = exp1 or exp2
not Logical NOT Operator flag = not(True) = False

Python Operators

Python Logical Operators

Python Assignment Operators

Operator Description
+= a+=b is equivalent to a=a+b
*= a*=b is equivalent to a=a*b
/= a/=b is equivalent to a=a/b
%= a%=b is equivalent to a=a%b
**= a**=b is equivalent to a=a**b (exponent operator)
//= a//=b is equivalent to a=a//b (floor division)

 

Python Assignment Operators

Python Operator Precedence

Precedence of python operators means the priority level of operators. This becomes vital when an expression has multiple operators in it. For example consider the following expression:

Now, what do you think the series of operation would be? We can add 2 and 3, then multiply the result by 4. Also, we can multiply 3 and 4 first, then add 2 with it. Here we can see that the operators’ precedence is important.

Below is a list of operators indicating the precedence level. It’s in descending order. That means the upper group has more precedence than that of the lower group.

  1. Parenthesis – ()
  2. Exponentiation – **
  3. Compliment, unary plus and minus – ~, +, -
  4. Multiply, Divide, modulo – *, /, %
  5. Addition and Subtraction – +, -
  6. Right and Left Shift – >>, <<
  7. Bitwise AND – &
  8. Bitwise OR and XOR – |, ^
  9. Comparison Operators – ==, !=, >, <, >=, <=
  10. Assignment Operator- =

Reference: Official Python Documentation

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